“The Tale of Custard the Dragon” by Ogden Nash

The Tale of Custard the Dragon                    by Ogden Nash

 

 

Probable Questions and Answers

 

  1. Very Short Type Questions: Marks : 1

 

  1. Choose the correct alternative:

(a) The poem, “The Tale of Custard the Dragon” is written by

(i) Ogden Nash

(ii) Robin Klein

(iii) John Berryman.

Ans:    (i) Ogden Nash.

(b) Belinda lived in a

(i) cottage       (ii) palace       (iii) little white house

Ans:    (iii) little white house.

(c) The name of the little black kitten is

(i) Blink                      (ii) Ink            (iii) Mustard

Ans:    (ii) Ink.

(d) Belinda called the dragon as

(i) Custard      (ii) Mustard    (iii) Blink

Ans:    (i) Custard.

(e) The dragon’s mouth was like a

(i) chimney     (ii) mantelpiece                     (iii) fireplace

Ans:    (iii) fireplace.

(f) They all heard a …… sound.

(i) sweet         (ii) nasty         (iii) buzzing

Ans:    (ii) nasty.

(g) The pirate was equipped with

(i) pistol in his left hand                    (ii) pistol in his right hand    (iii) pistols in both hands.

Ans:    (iii) pistols in both hands.

 

  1. Say true or false:

(a) Belinda had a little black kitten named Blink.              Ans:    False.

(b) Belinda had a pet dragon named Custard.                   Ans:    True.

(c) Belinda had a pet tiger named Mustard.                      Ans:    False.

(d) The dragon had big sharp teeth.                                    Ans:    True.

(e) The dragon’s mouth was like a fireplace.

(f) Percival was the other name given to the dragon.                    Ans:    True.

(g) A thief had entered Belinda’s little white house.                      Ans:    False.

(h) Custard finished off the pirate by gobbling.                  Ans:    True.

(i) Custard had been compared to a robin.             Ans:    True.

(j) Custard agreed that he alone was brave.                       Ans:    False.

 

  1. Name the poet of the poem, “The Tale of Custard the Dragon”.

Ans:    The poet of the poem, “The Tale of Custard the Dragon” is Ogden Nash.

  1. Where did Belinda live?

Ans:    Belinda lived in a little white house.

  1. What was the name of the little black kitten?

Ans:    The name of the little black kitten was Ink.

  1. What was the name of the little grey mouse?

Ans:    The name of the little grey mouse was Blink.

  1. What was the name of the little yellow dog?

Ans:    The name of the little yellow dog was Mustard.

  1. What did Belinda call the little pet dragon?

Ans:    Belinda called the little pet dragon Custard.

  1. Name the pets of Belinda.

Ans:    The pets of Belinda are Ink, Blink, Mustard and Custard.

  1. Who possessed the big sharp teeth?

Ans:    The dragon called Custard possessed the big sharp teeth.

  1. How did the dragon’s mouth look like?

Ans:    The dragon’s mouth looked like a fireplace.

  1. What did the dragon have on his toes?

Ans:    The dragon had daggers on his toes.

  1. With what, did the poet compare Belinda’s braveness?

Ans:    The poet compared Belinda’s braveness with a barrel full of bears.

  1. Who chased lions down the stairs?

Ans:    Ink and Blink chased lions down the stairs.

  1. Whom did Belinda tickle?

Ans:    Belinda tickled Custard, the dragon.

  1. Whom did Ink, Blink and Mustard call Percival?

Ans:    Ink, Blink and Mustard called Custard Percival.

  1. The dragon was called Percival. Who called it Percival?

Ans:    Ink, Blink and Mustard called the dragon Percival.

  1. Who, according to all pets and Belinda, was coward?

Ans:    According to all the pets and Belinda, Custard was coward.

  1. What happened when Belinda laughed?

Ans:    The house shook when Belinda laughed.

  1. What sound was heard by all of them?

Ans:    All of them heard a nasty sound.

  1. How did Ink react when it heard a nasty sound?

Ans:    Ink cried “meowch!” when it heard a nasty sound.

  1. Who entered Belinda’s little white house?

Ans:    A pirate entered Belinda’s little white house.

  1. What did the pirate carry in both his hands?

Ans:    The pirate carried pistols in both his hands.

  1. How was the pirate’s beard?

Ans:    The pirate had black bushy beard.

  1. With what, was the pirate’s one leg made of?

Ans:    The pirate’s one leg was made of wood.

  1. Why did Belinda cry for help?

Ans:    Belinda cried for help because a pirate had entered her house.

  1. How did Custard look like when he clashed with the pirate?

Ans:    Custard looked like a robin at a worm when he clashed with the pirate

  1. How many bullets did the pirate fire?

Ans:    The pirate fired two bullets.

  1. Who ate the pirate?

Ans:    Custard ate the pirate.

  1. Who amongst the pets was judged as brave?

Ans:    Amongst the pets, Custard was judged as brave.

  1. What is the rhyme scheme of the poem?

Ans:    The rhyme scheme of the poem is – aabb.

  1. Give rhyming words of the following :

house, wagon, Ink, teeth, nose, bears, rage, age, sound, right, wood, dragon, hit, gyrate

Ans:    house – mouse, wagon – dragon, Ink – Blink, teeth – underneath, nose – toes, bears – stairs, rage – cage, age – cage, sound – around, right – bright, wood – good, dragon – flagon, hit – bit, gyrate – pirate.

 

 

  1. Short Type Questions : Marks : 2/3

 

  1. Where did Belinda live? Name the pets possessed by her.

Ans:    Belinda lived in a little white house. The pets possessed by Belinda are Ink, Blink, Mustard and Custard.

  1. Who was Ink? Who was Blink?

Ans:    The name of the little black kitten was Ink. The name of the little grey mouse was Blink.

  1. Who was Mustard? Who was Custard?

Ans:    The name of the little yellow dog was Mustard. The name of the dragon was Custard.

  1. Briefly describe the physical features of the dragon.

Ans:    Custard the dragon looked terrifying. It had big sharp teeth and claws like daggers. Its mouth was like a fireplace and nose was like a chimney. It had scales underneath.

  1. Why did the dragon cry for a nice safe cage?

Ans:    The dragon cried for a nice safe cage because it was a cowardly dragon.

  1. Why is the dragon called ‘cowardly dragon’?

Ans:    The dragon is called a ‘cowardly dragon’ because it used to cry for a nice safe cage.

  1. “Belinda tickled him, she tickled him unmerciful ……” Why?

Ans:    Belinda and her pets used to laugh at the dragon for its cowardice. She tickled him to taunt and make fun of him.

  1. How did all the pets and Belinda react when they heard a nasty sound?

Ans:    When Belinda and her pets heard a nasty sound, Mustard growled, and all of them looked around. Ink cried “meowch!” and Belinda cried “ooh”.

  1. Describe briefly the pirate.

Ans:    The pirate had black bushy beard and a wooden leg. He held pistols in his hands and a sharp cutlass in his teeth. It was clear from his activities that he meant no good.

  1. How did Custard face the pirate?

Ans:    Custard faced the pirate boldly. He jumped up, snorted like an engine and clashed his tails like irons in a dungeon. Then, making a clattering and clanking sound and squirming, he attacked the pirate like a robin at a worm. He gobbled the pirate in the end.

  1. How did Custard prove that he was a brave dragon?

Ans:    When all the others including Belinda were terrified to see the pirate, Custard jumped up, snorted, clashed his tail and attacked the pirate and gobbled him. In this way, he proved that he was a brave dragon.

  1. Why did Ink and Blink gyrate in glee?

Ans:    Ink and Blink gyrated in glee because the pirate that had entered Belinda’s house with pistols and a cutlass was attacked and gobbled by Custard the dragon.

  1. How did Belinda and her pets behave when the pirate had been killed by Custard?

Ans:    When the pirate had been killed by Custard, Belinda embraced him, Mustard licked him and Ink and Blink gyrated around him.

  1. How did all boast of their false bravery?

Ans:    After the pirate had been killed, Mustard boasted that he would have been twice as brave if he had not been confused. Ink and Blink said that they would have been thrice as brave.

  1. Who amongst them was actually brave? How did he show his bravery?

Ans:    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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“Fog” by Carl Sandburg

Fog  by Carl Sandburg

 

Probable Questions and Answers

 

  1. Very Short Type Questions : Mark : 1

 

  1. Choose the correct alternative:

(a) The poem “Fog” was written by

(i) Robert Frost

(ii) Carl Sandburg

(iii) Walt Whitman.

Ans:    (ii) Carl Sandburg.

(b) The fog is compared to

(i) cat

(ii) dog

(iii) man.

Ans:    (i) cat

  1. Who wrote the poem, “Fog”?

Ans:    Carl Sandburg wrote the poem, “Fog”.

  1. How does the fog come?

Ans:    The fog comes silently as if on little cat feet.

  1. What does the poet think the fog is like?

Ans:    The poet thinks the fog is like a cat.

  1. Does the poet actually say the fog is like a cat?

Ans:    No. The poet actually uses metaphor to show resemblance between the coming of a cat and the fog.

 

  1. Short Type Questions : Marks : 2/3

 

  1. How does the poet describe the fog as if it were a living being?

Ans:    The poet says that the fog comes ‘on little cat feet’. He also says that the fog ‘sits looking over harbour and city and then moves on’. To show resemblance between the fog and a cat, the poet uses such metaphorical language that the fog is described as if it were a living being.

  1. Name the three things that tell us that the fog is like a cat.

Ans:    The three things that tell us that the fog is like a cat are – (i) the fog is said to come on ‘little cat feet’, (ii) it ‘sits looking’, and (iii) It ‘moves on’.

  1. How is the fog like a cat? What poetic device is used by the poet here?

Ans:    The fog comes silently just like a cat does. It ‘sits’ i.e. stays looking over the harbour and the city and then ‘moves on’ like a cat.

The poetic device used by the poet here is …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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“Animals” by Walt Whitman

Animals by Walt Whitman

 

 

 

 

Probable Questions and Answers

 

  1. Very Short Type Questions : Mark : 1

 

  1. Choose the correct alternative:

(a) The poem “Animals” is composed by

(i) Robert Frost

(ii) Walt Whitman

(iii) W.B. Yeats.

Ans:    (ii) Walt Whitman

(b) The poet wishes to live

(i) in a village (ii) in a jungle (iii) with animals

Ans:    (iii) with animals

(c) Animals, according to the poet, are

(i) placid and self-contained (ii) brutal        (iii) placid only.

Ans:    (i) placid and self-contained

(d) The animals do not weep over their

(i) sins (ii) ancestors  (iii) failures.

Ans:    (i) sins

(e) In the world of animals, no one is

(i) honest        (ii) respectable or unhappy   (iii) materialistic

Ans:    (ii) respectable or unhappy

 

  1. Choose the correct meaning of the italicized words from the alternatives given in brackets.

(a) ………. so ‘placid’ and self contained ……….

[calm / pleased / angry ]

Ans:    calm.

(b) ………. sweat and ‘whine’ about ……….

[roar / a long, high complaining cry / utter softly ]

Ans:    a long, high complaining cry.

(c) ………. one is ‘demented’ with ……….

[sane / calm / mad]

Ans:    mad.

(d) ………. ‘evince’ them plainly ……….

[show / express / presents]

Ans:    show.

 

  1. True or false

(a) Walt Whitman composed the poem “Animals”.           Ans:    True.

(b) This poem is taken from ‘Song of Myself’ in leaves of grass.              Ans:    True.

(c) Animals are the creatures that create havoc.               Ans:    False.

(d) Animals are not placid.               Ans:    False.

(e) Animals do not weep for their sins.                   Ans:    True.

(f) According to the poet, no one amongst the animals are mad for owning things.      Ans:    True.

 

  1. Who wrote the poem, “Animals”?

Ans:    Walt Whitman wrote the poem “Animals”.

  1. Name the book from where this poem has been taken.

Ans:    This poem has been taken from Walt Whitman’s collection of poems, “Leaves of Grass”.

  1. What was the wish of the poet?

Ans:    The wish of the poet was to turn into an animal and live with them.

  1. What are the qualities possessed by the animals?

Ans:    The animals possess the qualities of placidity, self-dependence, complacence and simplicity.

  1. What, according to the poet, do the animals not do regarding their condition?

Ans:    The animals, according to the poet, neither sweat and whine about their condition nor lie awake at night and weep for their sins.

  1. What do the animals not do for their sins?

Ans:    The animals do not lie awake at night and weep for their sins.

  1. Are they dissatisfied?

Ans:    No, they aren’t.

  1. With what are the animals not demented?

Ans:    The animals are not demented with the mania of owning things.

  1. What do the animals bring to the poet?

Ans:    The animals bring tokens of mutual love and understanding to the poet.

  1. Why does the poet wonder?

Ans:    The poet wonders where the animals got the tokens they bring to him.

  1. Give the meaning of the following words:

placid, self-contained, weep, demented, kneels, evince

Ans:    placid – calm, self-contained – independent / self-dependent, weep – to express deep sorrow by shedding tears, demented – mad, kneels – to fall or rest on the knees, evince – show.

 

 

  1. Short Type Questions : Marks : 2/3

 

  1. Why does Walt Whitman feel more at home with animals?

Ans:    Animals are placid and self-contained. They worry neither about their condition nor about their sins. They are not dissatisfied, respectable, unhappy or demented with the mania of owning things. They show their relations with the poet. So the poet Walt Whitman feels more at home with them.

  1. What quality of the animals mesmerizes the poet?

Ans:    The poet is mesmerised with the animals’ qualities such as placidity, self-dependence, complacence and simplicity.

  1. How do the animals act about their condition and duty to God?

Ans:    The animals never sweat and whine about their condition. They do not make others sick discussing their duty to God.

  1. How are animals superior to human beings?

Ans:    The animals are placid, self-sufficient, complacent and simple. Unlike humans, they do not worry about their condition and sins, nor do they make others sick discussing their duty to God. They are not demented with the mania of owning things. So they are superior to human beings.

  1. What are the ‘tokens’ that the poet says he may have dropped long ago, and which the animals have kept for him?

Ans:    The ‘tokens’ are of mutual love and understanding that the ancestors of the poet used to share with the animals thousands of years ago. The poet says that they dropped them and the animals kept them.

  1. Mention three things that humans do and animals don’t.

Ans:    Humans sweat and whine about their condition; but animals don’t. Humans lie awake at night and weep for their sins; but animals don’t. Humans make each other sick discussing their duty to God, but animals don’t.

  1. “I think I could turn and live with animals,

They are so placid and self-contain’d.

I stand and look at them long and long.”

(a) Name the poet and the poem.

Ans:    The name of the poet is Walt Whitman and the poem is “Animals”.

(b) What quality of the animals impressed the poet?

Ans:    The qualities of placidity, self-dependence, complacence and simplicity of the animals impressed the poet.

  1. “They do not sweat and whine about their condition

They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins.

They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God”

(a) Who is the ‘they’ referred to here?

Ans:    The ‘they’ referred to here are the animals.

(b) Name the things ‘they’ do not do.

Ans:    ‘They’ do not worry about their condition or sins. ‘They’ do not make …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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“Amanda” by Robin Klein

Amanda!

 

 

Probable Questions and Answers

 

  1. Very Short Type Questions :           Mark : 1

 

  1. Choose the correct alternative:

(a) The poem “Amanda” was written by

(i) John Berryman

(ii) Carolyn Wells

(iii) Robin Klein

Ans:    (iii) Robin Klein

 

(b) Amanda likes her

(i) nails                       (ii) hairs                      (iii) her doll

Ans:    (ii) hairs

(c) The sole inhabitant in the emerald sea is

(i) a shark       (ii) a mermaid           (iii) an octopus

Ans:    (ii) a mermaid

(d) The speaker told her to clean her

(i) palms         (ii) socks         (iii) shoes

Ans:    (iii) shoes

(e) Amanda likes to have

(i) chocolates (ii) snacks       (iii) soft drinks

Ans:    (i) chocolates

(f) Life in a tower is

(i) like the hell                       (ii) tranquil and rare             (iii) tranquil

Ans:    (ii) tranquil and rare

 

  1. Choose the correct meaning of the italicized words from the alternatives given in brackets.

(a) …… ‘hunch’ your shoulders ……

[raise / cut / nag]

Ans:    raise.

(b) ………… is a ‘languid’ emerald ……….

[tensed / relaxed / turmoil]

Ans:    relaxed.

(c) ……….my ‘hushed’, bare ……….

[noisy / compassion / silent]

Ans:    silent.

(d) ………. tower is ‘tranquil’ and …..

[calm / commotion / clamour]

Ans:    calm.

 

  1. True or false

(a) Amanda is a boy.             Ans:    False.

(b) Amanda likes to bite her fingers.           Ans:    False.

(c) The sole inhabitant in the emerald sea is an octopus.             Ans:    False.

(d) The speaker has asked Amanda to make her room orderly and tidy.                       Ans:    True

(e) Amanda likes to have chocolates.                      Ans:    True.

(f) Amanda thinks herself as Rapunzel.                 Ans:    True.

(g) Amanda is asked to take a bath.                        Ans:    False.

 

  1. Who wrote the poem, “Amanda”?

Ans:    Robin Klein wrote the poem Amanda.

  1. Who is Amanda?

Ans:    Amanda is a teenaged girl.

  1. What does Amanda like to bite?

Ans:    Amanda likes to bite her nails.

  1. Who lives in a languid, emerald sea?

Ans:    A mermaid lives in a languid, emerald sea.

  1. What about her homework is asked by the speaker?

Ans:    The speaker asks her whether her homework was finished or not.

  1. What does the speaker ask Amanda to clean?

Ans:    The speaker asks Amanda to clean her shoes.

  1. What was Amanda asked to remember?

Ans:    Amanda was asked to remember her acne.

  1. How is life in a tower?

Ans:    Life in a tower is tranquil and rare.

  1. What type of girl is Amanda as mentioned in the final stanza?

Ans:    Amanda is a moody type of girl as mentioned in the final stanza.

  1. Give the meaning of the following words –

hunch, slouching, drifting, roaming, hushed, tranquil, nagged

Ans:    hunch – to raise, slouching – bending, drifting – moving slowly, roaming – wandering / purposelessly moving about, hushed – silent, tranquil – relaxed / calm, nagged – disturbed.

 

  1. Short Type Questions : Marks : 2/3

 

  1. Who is Amanda? How old is she?

Ans:    Amanda was a young school-going girl. She was in her teen age.

  1. What is a mermaid?

Ans:    A mermaid is an imaginary creature having the body of half a woman and half a fish, which lives in the oceans.

  1. What could Amanda do if she were a mermaid?

Ans:    Amanda could drift blissfully in a calm, emerald sea if she were a mermaid.

  1. What does Amanda imagine doing as an orphan?

Ans:    Amanda imagines roaming around the streets as an orphan, patterning soft dust with her silent, bare feet.

  1. Is Amanda an orphan? Why does she say so?

Ans:    No, Amanda isn’t an orphan. She says so because she imagines herself as an orphan and wants to lead a carefree life just like orphans do.

  1. Why is Amanda asked not to have chocolates?

Ans:    Amanda is asked not to have chocolates because of her acne.

  1. Why does Amanda wish to be Rapunzel?

Ans:    Amanda wishes to lead a tranquil and rare life in a tower like Rapunzel did. Besides, she has excessive like for her bright hair like Rapunzel. So she wishes to be Rapunzel.

  1. Do you think Amanda is sulking and is moody?

Ans:    Yes, I think.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

>> The rest of the article is available at englishforschools.co.nf (click here)

 

“A Tiger in the Zoo” by Leslie Norris

A TIGER IN THE ZOO      by Leslie Norris

 

 

Probable Questions and Answers

 

  1. Very Short Type Questions : Mark : 1

 

  1. Choose the correct alternative :

 

(a) The poem, “A Tiger in the Zoo” was written by

(i) Leslie Norris         (ii) William Blake      (iii) Peter Niblett

Ans:    (i) Leslie Norris

(b) The captured tiger is stalking in –

(i) the zoo       (ii) the cage    (iii) the house

Ans:    (ii) the cage

(c) The tiger should be lurking in the grass

(i) for his prey            (ii) for taking rest      (iii) for leisure

Ans:    (i) for his prey

(d) The tiger snarls around

(i) the jungle  (ii) the cage    (iii) the houses in the village

Ans:    (iii) the houses in the village

(e) The strength of the tiger after being captured is now

(i) in his paws (ii) in his room           (iii) at night

Ans:    (ii) in his room

(f) The tiger hears the last voice

(i) at noon      (ii) in the morning     (iii) at night

Ans:    (iii) at night

 

  1. Choose the correct meaning of the italicized words from the alternatives given in brackets

(a)       He ‘stalks’ in his ………

(to crawl / to walk / lying)

Ans:    to crawl.

(b)       …………….. be ‘snarling’ around houses.

(walking / an angry sound / sniffing)

Ans:    an angry sound.

 

  1. True or false :

(a) Leslie Norris wrote the poem, ‘A Tiger in the Zoo’.                  Ans:    True.

(b) The tiger after being captured was released again.                 Ans:    False.

(c) The tiger stalks in the jungle.                 Ans:    False.

(d) The tiger lurks in the grass to escape from the sight of the hunters.             Ans:    False.

(e) The strength of the tiger after being captured lies behind bars.                     Ans:    True.

(f) The tiger hears the last voice at noon.               Ans:    False.

 

  1. Who wrote the poem, “A Tiger in the Zoo”?

Ans:    Leslie Norris wrote the poem “A Tiger in the Zoo”.

  1. Where does the tiger stalk after being captured?

Ans:    The tiger stalks the few steps of his cage after being captured.

  1. What is the emotion shown by the tiger?

Ans:    The tiger shows the emotions of apathy and quiet rage.

  1. Where should the tiger be lurking?

Ans:    The tiger should be lurking in the shadow of long grass in the jungle.

  1. What animal is ‘he’ going to prey?

Ans:    The tiger is going to prey deer.

  1. Where can the tiger see for food?

Ans:    The tiger can see for food near the water holes where plump deer pass.

  1. Where should ‘he’ be snarling?

Ans:    The tiger should be snarling around houses at the jungle’s edge.

  1. Who is terrorized by the tiger?

Ans:    The villagers living at the jungle’s edge are terrorised by the tiger.

  1. Where does ‘his’ strength lie after being locked in a concrete cell?

Ans:    The strength of the tiger lies behind bars after being locked in a concrete cell.

  1. When does ‘he’ hear the last voice?

Ans:    The tiger hears the last voice at night.

  1. What is the ‘last voice’ heard by the tiger?

Ans:    The ‘last voice’ heard by the tiger is the noise of patrolling cars.

  1. Where does ‘he’ stare with his eyes?

Ans:    The tiger stares at the brilliant stars in the night sky with his eyes.

  1. Give the rhyming words of the following words – cage, grass, edge, cars

Ans:    cage-village, grass-pass, edge-village, cars-stars.

 

  1. Short Type Questions : Marks : 2/3

 

 

  1. Where does the tiger stalk? How is his behaviour?

Ans:    The tiger stalks the few steps of his cage.

The tiger ignores visitors while hiding his rage quietly. He shows disinterestedness and silent rage.

  1. Why does the tiger express his rage quietly?

Ans:    The tiger expresses his rage quietly because there is nothing he can do from behind the bars of his cage. His strength now lies inside his cage. He is no longer free as he was in the jungle.

  1. What does the poet think where the tiger should be?

Ans:    The poet thinks that the tiger should be in the jungle, lurking in the shadow of long grass to prey deer near the water holes. He should also be on the outskirts of the jungle snarling around houses and terrifying villagers.

  1. Cite the reason of the tiger’s sliding through long grass.

Ans:    The reason behind the tiger’s sliding through long grass is to catch plump deer that generally pass near the water holes.

  1. How does the tiger make his presence being felt in the village?

Ans:    The tiger makes his presence being felt by snarling around houses at the jungle’s edge and by baring his white fangs and claws.

  1. Why is the tiger ignoring the visitors?

Ans:    The tiger is ignoring visitors because he is locked in a concrete cell. His strength lies behind the bars of his cage. He is helpless now. He can do nothing to the visitors.

  1. Who hears the last voice and of what?

Ans:    The tiger hears the last voice. The ‘last voice’ is the noise made by the patrolling cars.

  1. What is common between the eyes of the tiger and the stars?

Ans:    The common thing between the eyes of …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

>> The rest of the article is available at englishforschools.co.nf (click here)

Learning TENSES the Easiest Way, Day 4

Formula # 6 : (a)  If…..(Past Perfect)……..(Conditional Perfect).

(b)   If…..(Simple Past)……..(Conditional Indefinite).

(c)   If…..(Simple Present)…….(Simple Future).

Explanation : (a) If you see a sentence with an “if” in the beginning or middle and a part of that sentence in the Conditional Perfect form, then construct the other part of the sentence in the Past Perfect form, or vice versa.

(b) If you see a sentence with an “if” in the beginning or middle and a part of that sentence in the Conditional Indefinite form, then construct the other part of the sentence in the Simple Past form, or vice versa.

Construction of Past Perfect: S+had+Past Participle form of Main Verb.

Construction of Conditional Indefinite : S+should/would/could/might+Present Tense form of Main Verb.

Construction of Conditional Perfect : S+should/would/could/might+have+Past Participle form of Main Verb.

Examples :

(1) If I (have) enough money, I would build a castle.

Ans: If I had enough money, I would build a castle.

(2) If you came, we (go) for a long drive.

Ans: If you came, we would go for a long drive.

(3) If I (know) his address, I would have contacted him.

Ans: If I had known his address, I would have contacted him.

(4) I would have helped her if I (be) there.

Ans: I would have helped her if I had been there.

(5) If I (be) a bird, I could fly.

Ans: If I were a bird, I could fly.

(6) If it (rain), I shall not go out.

Ans: If it rains, I shall not go out.

(7) You will fail if you (not study).

Ans: You will fail if you do not study.

(8) If we (drink) impure water, we will fall sick.

Ans: If we drink impure water, we will fall sick.

(9) If you work hard, you (pass) the examination.

Ans: If you work hard, you will pass the examination.

(10) If I (can), I would help you.

Ans: If I could, I would help you.

Formula # 7 :   (Future Perfect)…….by(+time)/before(+time).

Explanation : If you see “by” or “before” immediately followed by a time expression, then construct the verb in the Future Perfect form.

Construction of Future Perfect : S+shall/will+have+Past Participle form of Main Verb.

Examples :

(1) I (finish) my homework by 10 p.m.

Ans: I shall have finished my homework by 10 p.m.

(2) They (reach) their destination before evening.

Ans: They will have reached their destination before evening.

(3) My father (arrive) by 4 o’clock.

Ans: My father will have arrived by 4 o’clock.

Formula # 8 :    (Present Continuous)*…….now/at this moment.

* :- (Simple Present) in the case of Non-Conclusive Verbs.

Explanation : If you see “now” or “at this moment”, make the verb within brackets in the Present Continuous form. But, if the verb is a Non-Conclusive Verb such as “know”, “feel”, “see”, “hear”, “understand” …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Learning Tenses the Easiest Way, Day 3

Here are some formulae to determine which tense it is :

Formula # 1 :  (Simple Present)……everyday/daily/regularly/frequently/often/every(+time)/once a week or month or year etc.

Explanation : If you see words like everyday/daily/regularly/frequently/often/every(+time)/once a week or month or year etc. in a sentence for correction of tense, form the verb within brackets in the Simple Present Tense.

Construction of Simple Present Tense : S+Present Tense form of Main Verb (-s or -es is added in 3rd Person Singular Subject). (Negative form : S+do/does+not+Present form of Main Verb)

Examples:

(1) I (go) to school daily.

Ans: I go to school daily.

(2) He (come) here everyday.

Ans: He comes here everyday.

(3) This newspaper (appear) once a month.

Ans: This newspaper appears once a month.

Formula # 2 :  (Simple Past)……last(+time)/yesterday/ago/back/recently etc. (-since/-for/-till/-until)

Explanation : If you see words like last(+time)/yesterday/ago/back/recently etc. in a sentence where words like since,for,till,until etc are absent, then form the verb in brackets in the Simple Past Tense form.

Construction of Simple Past Tense : S+Past form of Main Verb. (Negative form: S+did+not+Present Tense form of Main Verb)

Examples:

(1) I (see) you last week.

Ans: I saw you last week.

(2) She (not go) to school yesterday.

Ans: She did not go to school yesterday.

(3) They (come) here two days back.

Ans: They came here two days back.

Formula # 3 :   It is time/…wish/…as if/…as though…….(Simple Past).

Explanation : If you see a sentence starting with “It is time”/”It’s time” or words or phrases like “wish”, “as if”, “as though” in the middle of the sentence, then construct the verb within brackets in the Simple Past Tense. These words or phrases make the sentence conditional. So “I” is followed by “were” instead of “was”.

Example :

(1) It is time we (go) to bed.

Ans: It is time we went to bed.

(2) I wish I (be) a king.

Ans: I wish I were a king.

(3) She talks as if she (be) the Miss World.

Ans: She talks as if she was the Miss World.

(4) He behaved as though he (know) me.

Ans: He behaved as though he knew me.

Formula # 4 :    (Simple Future)……..next(+time)/tomorrow/shortly.

Explanation : If you see words like “next” followed by a time phrase, or “tomorrow” or “shortly”, then construct the verb within brackets in the Simple Future Tense form.

Construction of Simple Future Tense : S+shall/will+Present Tense form of Main Verb.

Examples:

(1) They (reach) Delhi next Monday.

Ans: They will reach Delhi next Monday.

(2) I (participate) in a quiz competition tomorrow.

Ans: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Learning TENSES the Easiest Way, Day 2

Learning TENSES the Easiest Way

Day 2

Let us look at the points of time various Tenses refer to :

Tenses When used
(1) Simple Present To express universal truth or habitual action. It may also refer to the future in conditional sentences.
(2) Simple Past To express an action that was over. It may also be used in conditional sentences.
(3) Simple Future To express a future event in general. It may also be used conditional sentences.
(4) Present Perfect To express an action that has been just finished.
(5) Past Perfect To express an action that had got over before another action. It may also be used in conditional sentences.
(6) Future Perfect To express an action that will be completely finished before another future action or time.
(7) Present Continuous To express an action that is now going on. It may be used to express an action that will happen in a short period of time (usually within a month)
(8) Past Continuous To express an action that was happening in the past.
(9) Future Continuous To express an action that will be going on in the future.
(10) Present Perfect Continuous To express an action that started in the past and has been continuing upto the present time.
(11) Past Perfect Continuous To express an action that had been happening before another action in the past.

We see that the Present Tenses do not always refer to the present time. These may express future time too (See Present Continuous or Simple Present Tense) or conditional statements (referring to an action that did not happen at all, but was possible of happening). Likewise, the Past Tenses may express conditional statements. So, Tenses are not a single time-marker.

You must be wondering what conditional statements are. Here’s how you can identify these: (i) Starts with “It is time”, (ii) There may an “If” in the beginning or in the middle, (iii) There may “as if” or “as though”, (iv) There may be words like “would”, “should”, “could”, “might”. E.g. – If he comes I shall not go. She behaves as if she knew everything. It is time we went to bed. We would have gone out if they had come.

Let us engage in a language game. Here are a few sentences. Try to identify the Tenses from the italicized parts : (answers are at the bottom of this post)

Q. Identify the Tense :

(a) I had been suffering from fever for two days.

(b) They were playing cricket.

(c) We will have arrived home before it rains.

(d) It is raining now.

(e) We go for a walk every morning.

(f) He has been living here since 1996.

(g) They will be travelling by train this time tomorrow.

(h) The guests have arrived just now.

(i) Are you reading books?

(j) The train had left before they arrived at the station.

(k) I shall have done my homework by 10 p.m.

Some of the most used Main Verbs and their four forms:

Present Tense form Past Tense form Past Participle form “-ing” or Continuous form
buy bought bought buying
bring brought brought bringing
build built built building
begin began begun beginning
be/am/is/are was/were been being
can could could —–
catch caught caught catching
call called called calling
come came come coming
do did done doing
dance danced danced dancing
die died died dying
dream dreamt dreamt dreaming
drive drove driven driving
eat ate eaten eating
fight fought fought fighting
feel felt felt feeling
go went gone going
get got got/gotten getting
gift gifted gifted gifting
hear heard heard hearing
help helped helped helping
have/has had had having
kill killed killed killing
keep kept kept keeping
look looked looked looking
like liked liked liking
love loved loved loving
laugh laughed laughed laughing
learn learnt learnt learning
leave left left leaving
live lived lived living
lose lost lost losing
finish finished finished finishing
find found found finding
meet met met meeting
make made made making
need needed needed needing
neglect neglected neglected neglecting
open opened opened opening
offer offered offered offering
put put put putting
pay paid paid paying
play played played playing
pass passed passed passing
run ran run running
rise rose risen rising
rain rained rained raining
read read read reading
ring rang rung ringing
sing sang sung singing
sit sat sat sitting
see saw seen seeing
serve served served serving
stand stood stood standing
start started started starting
stay stayed stayed staying
suffer suffered suffered suffering
move moved moved moving
cry cried cried crying
steal stole stolen stealing
lock locked locked locking
take took taken taking
use used used using
understand understood understood understanding
work worked worked working
write wrote written writing
walk walked walked walking
wait waited waited waiting
win won won winning

{ Answers to the language game:– 
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


>> The rest of the article is available at englishforschools.co.nf (click here)

Learning TENSES the Easiest Way, Day 1

Learning TENSES the Easiest Way

Day 1

Tense is the expression of time through language. In English, tenses are determined by the forms of verbs and their arrangement in a sentence.

There are 11 Tense forms in the English language. These are

(1) Simple Present

(2) Simple Past

(3) Simple Future

(4) Present Perfect

(5) Past Perfect

(6) Future Perfect

(7) Present Continuous

(8) Past Continuous

(9) Future Continuous

(10) Present Perfect Continuous

(11) Past Perfect Continuous

(However, note that sentences in Future Perfect Continuous are not used in English. So no need to discuss this.)

Tenses Auxiliary Verb(s) used Form of Main Verb
(1) Simple Present No Aux. (do/does in Negative) Present Tense form
(2) Simple Past No Aux (did in Negative) Past Tense form
(3) Simple Future shall/will Present Tense form
(4) Present Perfect have/has Past Participle form
(5) Past Perfect had —— do ——
(6) Future Perfect shall/will have —— do ——
(7) Present Continuous am/is/are “-ing” form
(8) Past Continuous was/were —— do ——
(9) Future Continuous shall/will be —— do ——
(10) Present Perfect Continuous have/has been —— do ——
(11) Past Perfect Continuous had been —— do ——

Is the above table too tough to memorize? Not at all. Just remember the following points :

(a) There is shall/will in every Future Tense forms.

(b) An auxiliary is always more in Future Tense forms as compared to Present and Past Tense forms (in the Simple, Perfect, Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tense categories). Future Tenses have an additional shall/will (in Simple Future), a have (in Future Perfect), and a be (in Future Continuous).

(c) All Perfect Tenses must have the “have verbs” (have/has/had) and the Past Participle form.

(d) All Continuous Tenses must have the “be verbs” (be/am/is/are/was/were) and the “-ing” form.

(e) The Perfect Continuous Tenses have the characteristics of both Perfect and Continuous Tenses. In Present Perfect Continuous Tense, there is been (Past Participle of be) which is a characteristic of Perfect Tenses, and -ing which is a characteristic of Continuous Tenses.

After you have memorized the Auxiliaries used in various tenses and the form of the Main Verb, let us move to examples of sentences of each tense.

Example sentences of each tense :

Tenses Examples of Sentences
(1) Simple Present I go to school. He goes to school. You do not play cricket.
(2) Simple Past I wrote a letter. He wrote a letter. You did not come yesterday.
(3) Simple Future I shall sing on stage. He will come here. You will study tonight.
(4) Present Perfect I have taken meal just now. He has done his homework. You have passed the examination.
(5) Past Perfect I had reached before they reached. The bell rang after we had entered our classroom. You had finished before it was midnight.
(6) Future Perfect I shall have met him. He will have bought a shirt. You will have come by 10 o’clock.
(7) Present Continuous I am learning grammar now. He is sleeping. You are dancing.
(8) Past Continuous I was travelling by bus. He was reading then. You were studying at that time.
(9) Future Continuous I shall be coming. He will be listening to music. You will be sleeping tonight.
(10) Present Perfect Continuous I have been staying here since 2008. He has been teaching for an hour. You have been doing the same mistake again and again.
(11) Past Perfect Continuous I had been sleeping before you came. He had been roaming around before it rained. I watched TV after you had been reading.

N.B. : Observe the italicized verbs and observe the forms in various tenses.

If you have trouble putting am/is/are/was/were/have/has and -s or -es then observe the following table closely :

Pronouns Am/is/are Was/were Have/has Do/does
I am was have do
We are were have do
You are were have do
He is was has does
She is was has does
It is was has does
They are were have do
·         A boy is was has does
·         Boys are were have do

If you have no idea about Persons and Numbers in Grammar, then let me tell you, all the nouns and pronouns are said to be in the Third Person except I, We and You. I is First Person Singular Number, We is First Person Plural Number and You is Second Person Singular or Plural Number. Please note, Verbs with Third Person Singular Number Nouns/Pronouns must be tagged with -s or -es (such as — plays, goes, comes etc) . These take the auxiliaries is, was and has.

Further discussions on Tenses will be made in my next post titled “Learning TENSES the Easiest Way, Day 2″. Kindly have a search in the search box.