How can we know ifa sentence is in Active Voice or Passive Voice? Here’s the rule :
The sentence is in Passive Voice if there are — am/is/are/was/were/be/been/being + Past Participle form of Main Verb
Otherwise it is in Active Voice.
Tell whether the following sentences are in Active Voice or Passive Voice:
(1) I don’t know him.
(2) She is writing a letter.
(3) Students are being taught by the teacher.
(4) He was seen in the market yesterday.
(5) We have arranged a picnic next month.
(6) My bicycle has been lost.
Answers : (1) Act, (2) Act, (3) Pass, (4) Pass, (5) Act, (6) Pass .
Rules for changing from Active Voice to Passive Voice :
(1) Subject and Object change position with each other. Pronoun in Subjective Case (I, we, he etc) changes to Objective Case (me, us, him etc) and vice versa.
(2) Complement(s) remain at the same place.
(3) If there is no Auxiliary Verb in Active Voice then use “Be Verbs” (am/is/are/was/were) in Passive Voice as per Tense and Number.
(4) If there is do/does/did as Auxiliary Verb then don’t use it in Passive Voice. In this case use “Be Verbs”.
(5) Always use Past Participle form of Main Verb in Passive Voice.
(6) If there is a Modal Auxiliary Verb (such as shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, ought to and used to) then add the Verb “be” before Main Verb.
(7) If there is have/has/had as Auxiliary Verb then add the Verb “been” before Main Verb.
(8) If there is a Present Participle form (also known as “-ing form”) of Main Verb then use the verb “being ” before Main Verb in Passive Voice.
(9) If there is a Preposition right after the Main Verb then it will remain in the same position (i.e right after the Main Verb).
(10) Add ‘by’ Preposition before Subject in Passive Voice.
[But remember, ‘By’ is not absolutely necessary in Passive Voice. If the Subject is removed in Passive Voice (See Rule 13) then ‘by’ is also not needed. Sometimes other prepositions such as to/at/with may be used in place of ‘by’ (See Rule 12). ]
(11) If there are two Objects in Active Voice then the second Object (Direct Object) will be placed right after the Main Verb in Passive Voice.
(12) If there is a Verb or Word like know, satisfy, dissatisfy, pleased, displeased, vexed, surprised then there will be ‘to’/’at’/’with’ instead of ‘by’ in Passive Voice. In the case of ‘know’ there will be ‘to’. In the case of the other Words there will be either ‘with’ (a person) or ‘at’ (a person’s something or any other thing)
(13) If there is “I” or “We” as Subject then there is no need to use it in Passive Voice.
(14) If the sentence is an Interrogative Sentence (?) then —
(i) Who –> By who
(ii) Whom –> Who
(iii) What + S –> What (no change)
(iv) What – S (no Subject) –> By what
(v) Which/Whose + O –> Which/Whose + O (i.e., no change)
(vi) Other Question Words such as Where, When, Why, How doesn’t change.
All these Question Words will always remain at the beginning of the sentence in Passive Voice.
(1) I meet him.
He is met by me.
(See Rule 1)
(2) He saw me yesterday.
I was seen by him yesterday.
(See Rule 2)
(3) Rajesh wrote a letter to Reshma.
Reshma was written a letter by Rajesh.
(See Rule 3)
(4) She does not read stories.
Stories are not read by her.
(See Rule 4)
(5) He does his homework regularly.
His homework is done by him regularly.
(See Rule 5)
(6) You must tell the truth.
The truth must be told by you.
(See Rule 6)
(7) The boy has broken the chair.
The chair has been broken by the boy.
(See Rule 7)
(8) Mr Ahmed is teaching English in the classroom.
English is being taught by Mr Ahmed in the classroom.
(See Rule 8)
>> The rest of the article
is available at englishforschools.co.nf (click here)